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Manufacturing & Technology News editors are constantly searching for and receiving new reports, analyses and books that readers would find helpful in their jobs. Here is our list of recent manufacturing-related reports that our editors have reviewed.

If you have a report you want to publicize in this list, please send it or an abstract to the editor via e-mail at editor @manufacturingnews.com (no space in the e-mail address) or go to our comments section. You can also send it by mail to Manufacturing & Technology News, P.O. Box 36, Annandale, VA 22003.

Reports, Analyses & Resources -- 2000 

Encyclopedia of Production and Manufacturing Management by Paul Swamidass describes the "explosive growth in concepts and practices" that have occurred in the global manufacturing sector. The $450 encyclopedia with more than 1100 short and long entries on production and manufacturing topics can be ordered by going to Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Oil, Energy and the Economy, a report from the Manufacturers Alliance/MAPI, says the United States and the rest of the world will remain heavily dependent on Middle Eastern oil, since there is so much there and so little everywhere else. For a copy, contact 703-841-9000.

Why Silicon Valley Should Not Normalize Relations With Washington, D.C., is a diatribe from T.J. Rodgers, president of Cypress Semiconductor, who lambastes even Jack Welch of General Electric for taking government handouts. "Washington is in the business of restricting freedom and therefore, in the business of undermining the foundation of Silicon Valley," he writes. The paper is available from the Cato Institute by setting your browser to www.cato.org.

Small and Medium Enterprise Outlook from the OECD analyzes why more than half of all start-up companies in 27 OECD countries donít survive beyond their first five years. The report "provides analysis of high-growth SMEs, the way in which regulatory reform can assist smaller firms and the relevance of electronic commerce for SMEs." For a copy, call 301-617-7834.

Asia E-Commerce Report finds that the current situation in Japan, Taiwan, Singapore and Malaysia is extremely buoyant, with a great deal of activity taking place there. "Many U.S. Internet companies are so focused on the domestic market that they have paid little attention to Asia," says the report. "This needs to change, however, or those companies will find themselves left behind in Asia and perhaps even facing competition from Asia in the U.S. market." The report is published by the Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations at the University of California, Irvine. For a copy, go to www.crito.uci.edu/PUBLICATIONS/PDF-PPT/asia2000.pdf.

Latin America: R&D Spending Jumps in Brazil, Mexico and Cost Rica, a report from the National Science Foundation, finds that R&D spending increased in these countries by 40 percent from 1990 to 1996, from $8.7 billion to $12.3 billion. R&D spending in Brazil jumped by more than 50 percent to $7.1 billion. In Mexico, the rise was 90 percent, from $1.1 billion in 1990 to $2.1 billion in 1996. For a copy of the report, call 301-947-2722.

The Capital Source is perhaps the best directory of Washington executives working in the government, industry, trade associations and the press. If you regularly make calls to any outfit in Washington, then this directory is worth being near your desk. It is published by the National Journal and is available for $29.00. Call 800-356-4838.

U.S. Industry and Trade Outlook 2000 from the U.S. Department of Commerce provides market forecasts for 200 industries and is an excellent resource for anybody analyzing markets in which they are involved or which they are considering entering. For a copy, go to www.doc.gov.

United States Air Force Manufacturing Technology Program Status Report Project Book provides information on the status of the Air Force Mantech program. The guide is available by setting your browser to http://www.afrl.af.mil or by calling 937-256-0194.

Agricultural Biotechnology: Tonic or Toxin, a study from the Economic Strategy Institute in Washington, says that food companies should decide on their own if it is necessary to label their genetically modified products. A mandatory labeling system should not be created by the government, says ESI. For a copy of the report, call 202-289-1288.

Survey of General Audit 2000: A Study of Norms, Attributes and Best Practices in the Management of Internal Audit by Manufacturing and Related Business Service Enterprises, 176 pages. For a copy of the $140 report, call the Manufacturers Alliances-MAPI at 703-841-9000.

Information Technology Outlook 2000, from the OECD describes the information and communication technology industryís tremendous growth throughout the world. For a copy of the report, call 301-617-7834 or set your browser to http://www.oecd.org/dsti/sti/it/prod/it-out2000-e.htm.

Car Technology Yearbook 2000 provides a snapshot of automotive technical advances made in 1999. For a copy, contact the Society of Automotive Engineers at 724-776-4970.

Globalizing Industrial Research and Development, a report from the Commerce Departmentís Technology Administration, finds that the number of R&D facilities in the United States owned by foreign companies has grown from 250 in 1992 to 715 in 1997. R&D expenditures by foreign-owned companies in the United States tripled from $6.5 billion in 1987 to $19.7 billion in 1997 and accounted for 15 percent of all company funded R&D in the United States.

There were 251 Japanese R&D facilities in the United States, a figure that outnumbers the amount of U.S. R&D facilities in other countries. German companies own 107 R&D facilities in the U.S., followed by the British with 103, French with 44, and Koreans with 32.

Foreign-owned facilities in the U.S. employed more than 115,700 R&D workers. There were 116 foreign owned drug and biotechnology R&D facilities in the U.S.; 115 chemical and rubber research centers; 54 computer software R&D facilities; 54 automotive; and 53 medical device and instrumentation facilities.

U.S. companies have increased R&D spending abroad from $5.2 billion in 1987 to $14.1 billion in 1997. U.S. companies run 169 R&D facilities abroad with 88 in Europe, 45 in Japan and 26 in Canada. For a copy of the report, call 202-482-3037.

Taking Stock, 1997, a report from the NAFTA-created Commission for Environmental Cooperation, finds that industrial pollution is increasing for the first time in years. Pollution increased 1.2 percent in the U.S. and Canada in 1997, compared to levels in 1995. For a copy of the report, go to www.cec.org.

Minerals Yearbooks -- Metals and Minerals 1997; Domestic 1998; International 1997 are published by the U.S. Geological Survey. They "contain information about virtually all metallic and industrial mineral commodities important to the U.S. economy," says the USGS. For information on the yearbooks and their costs, go to www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs.

World Toy Facts and Figures, a report from the International Council of Toy Industries, says that toy and video game sales worldwide reached $71 billion last year, up 5 percent from $67.8 billion spent in 1998. The average expenditure per child worldwide is $34. For information on the report, go to www.toy-icti.org.

Half a Loaf is Better Than None: The Case For Regional Free Trade Agreements by the Heritage Foundation describes why the U.S. should encourage regional trade agreements, even ones it isnít party to. "They let nations liberalize their economies at their own pace, experiment with customized structures and timetables that might be impossible through the World Trade Organization and ultimately promote freer trade worldwide." For a copy of the nine-page report, call 202-546-4400, or visit www.heritage.org.

Modeling Mobile-Source Emissions, a report from the National Research Council, says the Environmental Protection Agency should revise the computer model it uses to estimate the amount of volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxide and other pollutants being emitted from automobiles. The Mobile Source Emissions Factor Model (MOBILE) was developed in 1978 and is vastly underestimating the amount of pollution being generated. For a copy of the report, call 800-624-6242.

Making IT Better: Expanding Information Technology Research To Meet Societyís Needs, by the National Research Council, says that "research is needed to extend the remarkable advancements in basic computing and communications technologies [and] should be complemented by expanded research that addresses large-scale systems and social applications of information technology." For a copy of the $29.95 report, call 800-624-6242 or set your browser to http://www.nap.edu/catalog/9829.html.

Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium, a report by the National Research Council, says the Next Generation Space Telescope, with 100 times the sensitivity of the Hubble Space Telescope, is the nationís top astronomy priority. The report ranks the 21 new equipment initiatives proposed by the astronomy community. The total cost of this equipment is $4.67 billion. The assessment is produced every 10 years and is available by calling 800-624-6242.

Modes of Financial Support in the Graduate Education of Science and Engineering Doctorate Recipients, a report from the National Science Foundationís Division of Science Resource Studies, describes how Ph.D. students support their way through university. For a copy, call 301-947-2722

Ensuring A Strong U.S. Scientific, Technical and Engineering Workforce in the 21st Century, prepared by the White Houseís National Science and Technology Council, says the countryís reliance on white, non-Hispanic males to run the countryís scientific enterprise has to change. For a copy, go to http://www.whitehouse.gov/WH/EOP/OSTP/html/workforcerpt.pdf.

Education at a Glance 2000, a report from the OECD, finds that in 12 out of 18 OECD countries, public spending on education grew at a rate faster than GDP between 1990 and 1997. Total spending among the 18 countries grew from 5.2 percent of GDP in 1990 to an average of 5.8 percent in 1997. Most of that growth in spending occurred in higher education. "In many countries, however, enrollment in [higher] education grew even faster than spending." For a copy of the 380-page, $42 report, call 202-785-6323.

Characteristics of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers in the United States: 1997, by the National Science Foundationís Division of Science Resource Studies, is a 133-page analysis that tells you everything you need to know about doctoral students and engineers. For a copy, call Kelly Kang at 301-947-2722.

Recent GAO Reports

The General Accounting Office is the auditing arm of the U.S. Congress. It studies government programs, regulations, and policies impacting every aspect of society and industry. Congress generally acts upon the recommendations contained within the reports, copies of which are available for free by calling 202-512-6061.

World Trade Organization: U.S. Experience to Date in Dispute Settlement System says the U.S. has been involved in 42 cases involving the WTO. Of these, it served as plaintiff in 25 cases and defendant in 17 cases. "As a plaintiff, the United States prevailed in a final WTO dispute settlement ruling in 13 cases, resolved the dispute without a ruling in 10 cases and did not prevail in two cases," says GAO. "As a defendant, the United States prevailed in one case, resolved the dispute without a ruling in 10 cases and lost in six cases." The GAO concludes that the United States "has gained more than it has lost in the WTO dispute settlement process to date." 36 pages. (GAO/NSIAD/OGC-00-196BR)

H-1B Foreign Workers: Better Controls Needed to Help Employers and Protect Workers finds that the average annual salary of H-1B workers is $45,000 and the median age was 28 years. Half of the H-1B workers were born in India and 40 percent of them were already in the United States on another type of visa when they were hired under the program. The H-1B visa program, says GAO, is "vulnerable to abuse." 60 pages. (GAO/HEHS-00-157)

Automobile Fuel Economy: Potential Effects of Increasing the Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards finds that annual fuel consumption could decrease by between 6 and 37 percent over a 15- to 18-year period, but that safety could be jeopardized if the standards are too quickly enforced. "As long as there is sufficient lead time to meet higher CAF… levels, auto manufacturers could use fuel-saving technologies (such as continuously variable transmissions or lean-burn engines) instead of simply building smaller, lighter cars, thereby minimizing any negative impact on safety," says GAO. 41 pages. (GAO/RCED-00-194)

Sales Tax: Electronic Commerce Growth Presents Challenges; Revenue Losses Are Uncertain finds that it is hard to predict how big an impact the Internet will have on local jurisdictionsí sales tax revenue. Last year, governments collected $203 billion in general sales taxes, accounting for 33 percent of state tax revenues. By 2003, losses "could present significant revenue challenge for state and local government officials," says GAO. But much better data is needed because policy makers are getting ready to tax, tax, tax and if they donít know whatís going on their decisions "will be done in an environment of significant uncertainty," says GAO. 67 pages. (GAO/GGD/OCE-00-165)

Trade Adjustment Assistance: Opportunities to Improve the Community Adjustment and Investment Program finds that the program created by the NAFTA agreement has spent $257 million since 1997 on helping communities deal with industries adversely impacted by trade. "It is not clear to what extent the financing assistance has resulted in private sector employment and growth because the program does not have a monitoring system in place to measure program outcomes," says GAO. Louisiana has received the most money under the program ($51 million), followed by Texas ($49 million); Georgia ($28 million); California ($25 million); Idaho ($18 million); South Carolina ($13 million); Alaska ($11 million); Michigan ($9 million); and Mississippi ($6.7 million). 54 pages. (GAO/NSIAD-00-229)

Community Development: Local Growth Issues - Federal Opportunities and Challenges finds that cities and counties are concerned about the need for new infrastructure, increasing the tax base to support schools and services, traffic congestion and sprawl. 161 pages. (GAO/RCED-00-178).

Information Technology: Selected Agenciesí Use of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Software for Human Resource Functions finds that many government agencies are spending hundreds of millions of dollars more than expected on software programs from such companies as PeopleSoft. 51 pages. (GAO/AIMD-00-270)

Worker Protection: OSHA Inspections at Establishments Experiencing Labor Unrest finds that OSHA conducts a far greater percentage of inspections at companies involved in labor disputes. 24 pages. (GAO/HEHS-00-144)

Maritime Industry: As U.S. Single-Hull Oil Vessels Are Eliminated, Few Double-Hull Vessels May Replace Them says "the 22 domestic shipping companies we contacted that own single-hull oil vessels said that they have only limited plans to replace or convert these vessels," says GAO. 26 pages. (GAO/RCED-00-80)

Math and Science Education: Comprehensive Information About Federally Funded Materials Not Available finds that nine agencies are involved in 210 projects that are developing math and science materials for K-12. But most of the agencies "developed these materials as part of their goal to increase public awareness of a specific subject, rather than to improve math and science education," says GAO. Most projects focus on science rather than math. 43 pages. (GAO/HEHS-00-110)

Air Pollution: Status of Implementation and Issues of the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 finds that EPA has not met the statutory requirements for 129 requirements in the Clean Air Act. It has met 409 others, but the added workload, the emphasis on stakeholdersí reviews and having to set priorities has precluded it from meeting the February 2000 requirements established the law. Air pollution has declined substantially since 1990, but "the nation still has a long way to go to reach the agencyís goal of clean air nationwide," says GAO, quoting EPAís assistant administrator. 58 pages. (GAO/RCED-00-72)

Toxic Chemicals: Long-Term Coordinated Strategy Needed to Measure Exposure in Humans finds that only 6 percent of the 1,400 toxic chemicals studied by GAO are monitored for human exposure. "Even for those chemicals that are measured, information is often insufficient to identify smaller population groups at risk," says GAO. 78 pages (GAO/HEHS-00-80)

Air Pollution: Emission Sources Regulated by Multiple Clean Air Act Provisions finds that some chemical, refinery and electric generating plants must comply with a half dozen or more programs aimed at monitoring emissions. EPA has started a "Consolidated Air Rule" to put all of these into a single set of regulations. This rule "would reduce the regulatory burden and make compliance easier by having one set of emission controls and monitoring, record keeping and reporting requirements," says GAO. 21 pages. (GAO/RCED-00-155)

Superfund: Extent to Which Most Reforms Have Improved the Program is Unknown. 117 pages. (GAO/RCED-00-118)

Managing For Results: EPA Faces Challenges in Developing Results-Oriented Performance Goals and Measures. 41 pages. (GAO/RCED-00-77)

Environmental Protection: More Consistency Needed Among EPA Regions in Approach to Enforcement. 71 pages. (GAO/RCED-00-108)

Regulatory Flexibilities Act: Implementation in EPA Program Offices and Proposed Lead Rule. 36 pages. (GAO/GGD-00-193)

Occupational Safety and Health: Government Responses to Beryllium Uses and Risks. 25 pages. (GAO/OCG-00-6)

Energy Policy Act of 1992: Limited Progress in Acquiring Alternative Fuel Vehicles and Reaching Fuel Goals finds that one million alternative fuel vehicles were on the road in 1999, 0.4 percent of all vehicles. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 required that by 2000, 10 percent of energy needed by the transportation sector should come from alternative fuels. The goal was not met. Fuels mixed with methanol and ethanol (alternative fuels) accounted for 3.6 percent of all highway gasoline use. "Any efforts to significantly expand the use of alternative fuel vehicles will need to address their current cost disadvantages relative to vehicles that use gasoline," says GAO. 37 pages. (GAO/RCED-00-59)

Information Security: Vulnerabilities in DOEís Systems for Unclassified Civilian Researchfinds that a lot of sensitive information is leaking out of the labs because of the lack of consistent guidance from headquarters. 38 pages. (GAO/AIMD-00-140)

Aviation Safety: Safer Skies Initiative Has Taken Initial Steps to Reduce Accident Rates by 2007 finds that if measures are not taken, accidents will increase substantially. 101 pages. (GAO/RCED-00-111)

Aviation and the Environment: Results From a Survey of the Nationís 50 Busiest Commercial Service Airports. 73 pages. (GAO/RCED-00-222)

Defense Headquarters: Status of Effort to Redefine and Reduce Headquarters Staff says the Department of Defense will not meet the congressionally mandated goal of reducing headquarters staff by 15 percent (9,460) positions by the end of fiscal year 2002. 18 pages. (GAO/NSIAD-00-224)

Defense Trade: Contractors Engage in Varied International Alliances. 22 pages. (GAO/NSIAD-00-213)

Defense Management: Actions Needed to Sustain Reform Initiatives and Achieve Greater Results says reforms are "off to a good start," but that many opportunities exist "to make the initiative more effective." 90 pages. (GAO/NSIAD-00-72)

Defense Acquisitions: Recent F-22 Production Cost Estimates Exceeded Congressional Limitation says that "about half of the $21 billion in cost reductions identified by the F-22 contractors and program office have not yet been implemented..." 27 pages. (GAO/NSIAD-00-178)

Defense Inventory: Process for Canceling Inventory Orders Needs Improvement finds that the Pentagon usually does not order parts to sit in inventory, but its inventory grows because of changes in demand between when an order is placed and when it is delivered. 35 pages. (GAO/NSIAD-00-160)

Defense Acquisition: Prices of Marine Corps Spare Parts Have Increased. 33 pages. (GAO/NSIAD-00-123)

Joint Strike Fighter: Development Schedule Should Be Changed To Reduce Risks. 30 pages. (GAO/NSIAD-00-71)

Defense Trade: Identifying Foreign Acquisitions Affecting National Security Can Be Improved. 31 pages. (GAO/NSIAD-00-144)

Best Practices: A More Constructive Test Approach Is Key To Better Weapons System Outcomes. 66 pages. (GAO/NSIAD-00-129)

Defense Management: Electronic Commerce Implementation Strategy Can Be Improved. 67 pages. (GAO/NSIAD-00-108)

DOD Competitive Sourcing: Some Progress, But Continuing Challenges Remain in Meeting Program Goals. 35 pages. (NSIAD/GAO-00-106)

Human Capital: Key Principles From Nine Private Sector Organizations (GAO/GGD-00-28), 31 pages.

World Trade Organization: Chinaís Membership Status and Normal Trade Relations Issues (GAO/NSIAD-00-94), 21 pages.

Superfund: Analysis of Costs at Five Superfund Sites (GAO/RCED-00-22), 61 pages.

Port Infrastructure: Financing of Navigation Projects at Small- and Medium-Sized Ports (GAO/RCED-00-58), 30 pages.

Consumer Price Index: Update of Boskin Commissionís Estimate of Bias (GAO/GGD-00-50), 47 pages.

U.S. Infrastructure: Funding Trends and Opportunities to Improve Investment Decisions (GAO/RCED/AIMD-00-35), 73 pages.

Acquisition Reform: GSA and VA Efforts to Improve Training of Their Acquisition Workforces (GAO/GGD-00-66), 35 pages.

U.S.-Mexico Border: Better Planning, Coordination Needed to Handle Growing Commercial Traffic (GAO/NSIAD-00-25), 73 pages.

Acid Rain: Emissions Trends and Effects in the Eastern United States (GAO/RCED-00-47), 33 pages.

Motor Fuels: California Gasoline Price Behavior (GAO/RCED-00-121), 25 pages.

Mass Transit: Use of Alternative Fuels in Transit Buses (GAO/RCED-00-18), 47 pages.

Foreign Military Sales: Air Force Controls Over the Foreign Military Sales Program Need Improvement (GAO/AIMD-00-101), 14 pages,

Defense Acquisitions: Need to Revise Acquisition Strategy to Reduce Risk for Joint Air-To-Surface Standoff Missile (GAO/NSIAD-00-75), 18 pages.

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: Progress of the Global Hawk Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (GAO/NSIAD-00-78), 14 pages.

F-22 Aircraft: Development Cost Goal Achievable If Major Problems Are Avoided (GAO/NSIAD-00-68), 26 pages.

Military Capabilities: Focused Attention Needed to Prepare U.S. Forces for Combat in Urban Areas, GAO/NSIAD-00-36NI), 37 pages.

Defense Inventory: Plan to Improve Management of Shipped Inventory Should Be Strengthened (GAO/NSIAD-00-39), 36 pages.

1999 Reports

Send them to Editor, Manufacturing & Technology News, P.O. Box 36, Annandale, VA 22003; or fax us a synopsis at 703-750-0064; via e-mail, editor @manufacturingnews.com; or drop us a line in the Comments section of our Web site.

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